Endodontics is a dental speciality that is concerned with the diseases of the contents from dental root canals, i.e. dental pulp. Problems with dental pulp can be caused by many reasons, one of which is dental caries, of course. When bacteria and their toxins reach the tooth chamber, they cause an inflammation called pulpitis. Furthermore, bacteria and toxins can cause the interruption of blood supply to the tooth and death of the root canal contents, and that is when gangrene can occur.
Bacteria can also enter the jawbone through the tip of the dental root called the apex, which results in a process on the root tip. Endodontics also deals with the recovery of apex periodontium (tooth root tip, periodontal space and regional bone) from diseases and injuries.
In some countries (depending on legislation and principles of dental chambers), endodontics specialists may perform surgeries of the apex periodontium. Dental pulp diseases Dental pulp diseases (Latin: "pulpa dentis") most often occur due to caries complications, i.e. spreading destruction of the hard tooth substance (enamel, dentin, and rarely tooth cement) until reaching the dental pulp. The dental pulp reacts to the caused infection with an inflammatory process, which is manifested by the occurrence of toothache. Less often, dental pulp inflammations may occur as a consequence of bacterial toxins reaching the dental pulp through the dentin canals or entering the dental root tips through the periodontal pockets. Trauma can cause injuries or inflammations of the dental pulp too.
Dental pulp treatment. Dental pulp disease treatment can be performed in two directions. One direction implies dealing with the disease while preserving the dental pulp, which is mainly done by applying certain medications. Another direction means dealing with the disease and adequate treatment of the root canal pulp and afterwards filling (obturation) the root canals with gutta-percha and a suitable sealer.